Journalism November 2018 Past Examination Question Paper – KNEC
This Past Paper examination was examined by the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) and it applies to the following courses
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SECTION A (32 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.
1. Outline three functions of communication that are performed by journalists. (3 marks)
2. List three types of noise that may hinder a journalist from communicating effectively. (3 marks)
3. State two ways in which journalists may use informal communication when performing their duties. (2 marks)
4. List three advantages of using photographs to disseminate information.
5. List four reasons why a journalist should observe etiquette when communicating with an audience. (4 marks)
6. List four measures that may be taken to make a print advertisement effective. (4 marks)
7. State three reasons why reports should be edited before dissemination. (4 marks)
8. Outline four ways in which a journalist may prepare for a live interview.
9. State three channels of communication used by public relations officers to pass information to ‘ internal publics.
List three functions of the minutes of a meeting.
SECTION B (68 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.
a) Write an essay of about 250 words on:
“The impact of climate change on the Kenyan economy”. (10 marks)
b) Outline four guidelines that should be followed when writing a press release. (8 marks)
- You work as the secretary of the Kenya Association of Journalists. The organization’s Executive Committee held a meeting recently in which the following agenda items, among others, were discussed:
- Security risks facing members;
- Collaboration with sister associations in other countries;
(iii) Income generating activities.
Write the minutes of the meeting. (16 marks)
- (a) Explain four characteristics of good recommendations in a report. (8 marks)
(b) The bar graph below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya between 2011 and 2017. Study the graph and answer the questions that follow it
- Calculate the difference between the highest and the lowest numbers of tourist
arrivals during the period. (2 marks)
- Describe the patterns of tourist arrivals in Kenya during the study period.
- State the years when tourist arrivals were similar. (2 marks)
- State the year in which there was the greatest increase in the number of tourist
arrivals‘ (2 marks)
Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
A team is a group of people who work together to accomplish a common goal. It is composed of a small number of people who possess complementary skills. Team members trust one another, are committed to a common purpose and hold themselves mutually accountable to one another. They work together on a regular basis and have specific roles to perform. All team members must understand group goals and objectives. This can be achieved by members participating in setting team goals and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished.
There are various types of teams in organizations. One such team is a work team. This is a team that manufactures, assembles, sells and provides services in an organization. A work team is well defined, is part of the formal organization structure and is composed of a full-time and stable membership. The project development team is another type. This team works g*?’ long-term projects with specific assignments such as research or new product development, ^he team is composed of members with expert knowledge which they bring to the group in order to accomplish the assigned task. This team works towards a one-off product or project and is disbanded once the task is completed. Another type of team found in organizations is the parallel team. Members are drawn from different sections of the organization and are mandated to do work that is not normally assigned through the regular structure. Their role is to recommend solutions to specific problems
The management team is a further type and its membership is made up of managers responsible for direct sub-units of an organization. Their main role is to coordinate and provide direction to sub units under their jurisdiction. The team is responsible for the overall performance of the organization and its authority stems from the hierarchical structure of the organization.
Organizations with activities that span multiple countries have teams known as transnationals. These teams are composed of members from different nations who are geographically dispersed, therefore the teams are virtual and communicate electronically. The main role of this team is to coordinate and integrate the activities of the organization in different countries. In so doing, synergy is achieved thereby positively impacting on the objectives of the multinational organization.
A common type of team found in manufacturing organizations is the self-managed team. This group is composed of members who have expertise in various aspects of manufacturing and can execute most of the tasks in the unit. The team is autonomous and self-directed. Another type of team in an organization is the traditional work group. The main task of this group is to implement instructions given by their supervisors. They do not have managerial responsibilities as first line managers plan, organize, direct and control them.
While teams are critical to an organization’s performance, their contribution levels to the bottom line vary. Cohesive teams are more effective in execution of tasks assigned to them. Cohesion is brought about by understanding among members, common shared goals, complementary strengths, effective leadership and organizational support among others. Organizations have a major role in enhancing the effectiveness of teams if they are to achieve their mandate. To this end, organizations should avail the required resources, goodwill, team
building opportunities, a conducive work environment and incentives to motivate members to play their
all this is done, teams will achieve their objectives thereby contributing to the overall goal of the organization. Such teams increase organizations’ visibility and this will enable them to be more competitive in the industry and hence have bigger market shares.
(b) In about 160 words, and according to the passage, describe the various types of teams
that may be found in an organization. (12 marks)